Technical Differences between WEB 2  and WEB 3 A Developer’s Perspective

Web2 refers to the internet’s second generation, in which websites and web applications are centralized. For many years, Web2 has been the standard, with a client-server architecture and data stored on central servers controlled by a few large corporations. This centralized approach has drawbacks in terms of privacy, security, and data control. Web3, on the other hand, is a decentralized version of the internet in which users distribute and control data using blockchain technology. This improves transparency, security, and control over personal data. 


Web 2.0 computers use HTTP in the form of unique web addresses to locate information stored in a fixed location, typically on a single server. Because the information in Web 3.0 can be found based on its content, it can be stored in multiple locations at the same time, making it decentralized. 

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is the most common protocol for sending data over the internet. It is a client-server protocol that allows web servers and web clients, such as web browsers, to communicate.

IPFS (InterPlanetary File System), on the other hand, is a distributed protocol that provides a decentralized file storage system. It is intended to provide a more efficient and secure method of storing and sharing files over the Internet. 


A centralized architecture is one in which a single entity controls all of the data and resources, whereas a decentralised architecture is one in which multiple nodes share the data and resources with no single entity controlling them. Decentralized architecture benefits from increased security, transparency, and resilience, whereas centralised architecture benefits from improved control and efficiency.  

Blockchain is a type of distributed ledger technology that records and verifies transactions using a peer-to-peer network. Each node in a blockchain network has a duplicate of the ledger, and transactions are verified by a consensus mechanism that involves multiple nodes.  The network’s decentralized nature makes tampering with the ledger difficult, as any changes would need to be approved by the majority of nodes. As a result, blockchain has become a secure and transparent method of recording and transferring data, leading to its widespread adoption in a variety of industries. 

Data Sharing

In Web2, the primary method is traditional client-server data sharing, in which a central server stores and manages data while client devices request and receive data from the server.

All data transactions are handled by the server, and clients must be connected to the server to access and interact with the data. Because all traffic is routed through a single point of access, this model may have scalability, security, and performance issues. 

Web3, on the other hand, uses decentralized data sharing via peer-to-peer networks rather than centralised servers, allowing for more secure, transparent, and efficient data sharing.

Decentralized data sharing, as opposed to traditional client-server data sharing, employs blockchain technology to ensure the immutability and integrity of data, and it eliminates the need for intermediaries, lowering the risk of data breaches and manipulation.  Decentralized data sharing on Web3 also promotes data ownership and control, allowing individuals to share and monetize their data on their terms.

Web3 data-sharing protocols are designed to be distributed across multiple nodes in order to improve resilience, scalability, and security.  This decentralized network structure is made possible by the use of blockchain technology and other peer-to-peer protocols, which enable secure and transparent data sharing in the absence of a central authority. 

Data Storage

The way Web2 and Web3 handle data storage differs. Data in Web2 is typically stored in centralized servers controlled by large corporations, whereas data in Web3 is decentralized and distributed across a network of nodes, providing greater security, privacy, and accessibility. 

Web2 Storage

Data is typically stored in centralized databases or file systems in Web2. Web2 storage technologies include the following: 

SQL databases

SQL databases are a type of relational database in which data is stored in tables with columns and rows. In Web2 applications, they are commonly used to store structured data such as user profiles, transaction records, and inventory data. 

NoSQL databases

NoSQL databases are a type of non-relational database in which data is stored in a more flexible format, such as key-value pairs, documents, or graphs. They’re commonly used in Web2 apps to store unstructured data like social media posts, product reviews, and sensor data. 

File systems

Unstructured data such as images, videos, and documents are stored in file systems. Web2 file systems typically manage file storage and access through a centralized server or storage area network (SAN).

While Web2 storage technologies have been successful in enabling data storage and retrieval, they also have security, privacy, and accessibility limitations. Centralized storage systems are vulnerable to data breaches, censorship, and downtime, and they necessitate a high level of trust in the central authority in charge of data management. 

Web3 Storage

By leveraging decentralized and distributed storage architectures, Web3 storage solutions aim to address the limitations of centralised storage systems.

Web3 storage solutions provide greater security, privacy, and accessibility by storing and managing data using cryptographic protocols, peer-to-peer networks, and blockchain technology. 

IPFS (InterPlanetary File System)

IPFS is a decentralised file storage system that allows users to store and share files across multiple nodes in a network. IPFS employs content-based addressing rather than location-based addressing, allowing for more efficient and secure file storage and retrieval.


Swarm is an Ethereum ecosystem-based decentralised storage platform. It enables users to store and retrieve data on a peer-to-peer network of nodes, with the added benefit of being able to manage and access data using smart contracts. 


Filecoin is a decentralized storage network that employs blockchain technology to reward users for contributing storage space and bandwidth to the network. Users can earn tokens by providing network storage space and use them to access storage services provided by other users. 


Arweave is a blockchain-based storage network that employs a novel consensus algorithm known as “Proof of Access” to ensure that data is kept on the network indefinitely. Arweave aims to develop a new storage model that is both decentralized and sustainable. 


Web2 networks are typically centralised, with a single point of control, whereas web3 networks are decentralised, with a peer-to-peer network(P2P)  structure. Data and services in web2 are primarily hosted on centralised servers owned by a few large corporations.

Web3 networks, on the other hand, are intended to be distributed across multiple nodes, allowing for greater resilience, scalability, and security. The use of blockchain technology and other peer-to-peer protocols, which allow for secure and transparent data sharing without the need for a central authority, enables the decentralised network structure. 


In terms of security, Web2 and Web3 differ significantly. Because Web2 is a centralized system, it is vulnerable to a variety of security threats, including data breaches, identity theft, and distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks.

Web3’s decentralized architecture and encrypted approach, on the other hand, ensure greater security and resilience by dispersing data across the network, making it difficult for attackers to manipulate or destroy data.

To secure data transmission over the internet, Web2 security protocols rely heavily on SSL/TLS encryption. However, SSL/TLS encryption alone will not provide complete security because the centralized nature of Web2 networks exposes them to single points of failure and attacks. As a result, Web2 systems are frequently vulnerable to data theft and security breaches. 

Web Applications

The client sends a request to the server, which processes it and returns a response to the client in traditional web application architecture. The server-side logic is in charge of data and business logic, whereas the client-side logic is in charge of user interface and rendering. This model is centralized and is commonly referred to as the client-server model.

Decentralized web applications (dApps) are built on the blockchain in Web3 and enable the development of trustless, transparent, and secure applications that operate without the use of intermediaries. Smart contracts are self-executing contracts that automatically enforce an agreement’s rules and regulations. 


Web2 and Web3 differ significantly in terms of technical architecture, protocols, data sharing, storage, network structure, security, and application development, with Web3 representing a paradigm shift in terms of its technical architecture, protocols, data sharing, storage, network structure, security, and application development.

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